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Case 光谱共焦传感器案例


日期: 2020-08-05
浏览次数: 270

Pontiac Coil manufactures electrical coils, solenoids, and electromechanical devices for automotive, trucking, mobile equipment, medical, information technology and telecommunications applications. In building a fuel stator for a diesel engine, the company has long manually inspected every part to ensure that the lead tower cap had been attached with pins or screws and that the lead towers have been soldered. The company is penalized $2,000 for any defect on this part. Pontiac Coil previously used vision systems that cost $10,700 for similar applications but asked a vision systems distributor if they could provide a more cost-effective solution.

The Vision Traceability Group (VTG), a certified solutions provider of machine vision solutions that is a division of McNaughton-McKay Electric Company, proposed using a Cognex In-Sight® Micro 1050 vision system that costs about $3,700. Rob Osgood, Manufacturing Engineer for Pontiac Coil, developed the application using the vision sensor’s graphical user interface in one week and installed it on the line in only 90 minutes. “The In-Sight vision system has demonstrated its ability to flawlessly inspect several different part numbers,” Osgood said. “In its first full week of operation, it detected two defects, more than paying for itself.”

Manufacturing fuel injection stators

Quality assurance and process control are the foundation of manufacturing at Pontiac Coil. Customers include Delphi, Eaton, Visteon, Cummins, American Axle, Behr, Honeywell, Husco, Teleflex, Bosch, Usui and Ogura. Pontiac Coil employs 340 people and is headquartered in Clarkston, MI, with additional manufacturing facilities in Searcy, AR, and Nottingham, UK.

Most diesel engines use fuel injectors to deliver an atomized fuel charge to the engine cylinders. An electronic timing circuit delivers precisely timed electrical pulses for operation of the fuel injector. These pulses are delivered to a solenoid stator assembly which generates magnetic forces to actuate a solenoid plunger mounted in the fuel injector that controls the injection of fuel into each engine cylinder. The housing of the solenoid stator assembly protects the internal electrical components and locates them precisely in relation to the reciprocating solenoid plunger.

Pontiac Coil builds several types of stators for diesel engines used on heavy trucks. These stators are inspected on a dial machine that checks for high potential (hipot) conditions by applying a high voltage and making sure it does not penetrate the shell. The machine also performs leak testing and laser inspection of threads inside the body. Parts that pass all tests are then laser etched with a unique serial number. The dial machine is manually loaded and unloaded. In the past, the only manual inspection operation was to check the fasteners on the stator.

Two different types of fasteners—pins and star head screws—are used on the two different types of stators inspected on this line and the company needs to ensure that the correct screw is present. Each terminal also needs to be coated with solder so that it makes a good connection with the housing. Also, there are lobes located on the housing to the left and right of a cavity that could potentially be broken off, so the stators also need to be inspected for their presence. Pontiac Coil has used a number of costly vision systems in similar applications and consultants are typically needed to configure these complex systems.

Feasibility study

Tim McLennan, sales engineer for VTG, visited Pontiac Coil and examined the application. He performed a study to evaluating the feasibility of using a much less expensive Cognex vision solution to inspect the part. McLennan brought sample parts back to the company’s vision lab and Jim Witherspoon, Application Engineer for VTG, performed the feasibility study. After experimenting with the application in the lab, Witherspoon concluded that lighting is the key to this application. “Various direct ring lights can be attempted but the CCS High Intensity ring light makes this application very robust,” Witherspoon’s report concluded. “If there is a solder then the tips glow a bright white. If the solder is missing then the tips remain dark. The pins and screw verification also works very well with the prescribed lighting.”

Witherspoon recommended the Cognex In-Sight Micro 1050 vision system because it provides both EasyBuilder® and spreadsheet application development interfaces. Cognex In-Sight Micro vision systems enable powerful vision applications using a small self-contained package available at an economical cost. Additionally, In-Sight vision systems feature the EasyBuilder interface that walks the user through the process of configuring the vision application step by step. The In-Sight enclosure is only 30mm x 30mm x 60mm and provides 640 x 480 (VGA) resolution.

In-Sight Micro vision systems are the size of a remote-head camera so they are ideal for mounting in very tight spaces on robots, production lines and machinery. In addition to their small size, they provide flexible mounting capability with a unique non-linear calibration tool that enables mounting at angles of up to 45-degrees for hard-to-reach applications. They also offer an Ethernet output that simplifies the task of interfacing the vision system and, in some applications, eliminates the expense of a programmable logic controller (PLC) by communicating directly with the production system.

Developing the vision application

The feasibility study demonstrated that the In-Sight vision system could identify good parts from bad parts,” said Rob Osgood, Manufacturing Engineer for Pontiac Coil. “I took on the task of developing the application and integrating the vision system into our production system.” Osgood started off by mounting the vision system and connecting it by an Ethernet cable to the network switch. The vision system is powered by a Power over Ethernet (PoE) adaptor. He used the lighting and the lens recommended by VTG. Osgood configured the vision system with an IP address on the network that was immediately recognized by the Allen Bradley PLC that controls the production system PLC. The EasyBuilder interface automatically generates the Allen Bradley ControlLogix commands needed to communicate with the PLC.

Osgood used the spreadsheet functionality to perform several filtering operations, including binarization and stretching, for each screw position. He used a series of contrast tools to search for each of the fasteners that should be present in the stator housing. The contrast tools measure the number of light pixels relative to the dark pixels within each area where each of the five screws and two lobes are supposed to be located. The next step after verifying the presence of the screws or lobes is the use of pattern tools to check the type of each fastener on the stator.

The presence of solder is inspected simply by binarizing the image of each terminal and measuring the grey scale. Osgood identified the lobes by searching for the plastic circle on each lobe and verifying its diameter. He used EasyBuilder’s point-and-click communications setup to configure the vision system to send inspection results to the PLC after each inspection. In the deployment mode, color tools graphics, a results table and a filmstrip enable to the operator and maintenance staff to review images in order to verify the identification of bad parts and troubleshoot the application.

“The vision application has helped us improve quality while reducing manpower on the inspection line,” Osgood concluded. “The vision system’s relatively low cost was easy to justify since we are penalized $2,000 for any defect. The vision system has operated for six months and in this time it has never passed a bad part nor failed a good part. The result is that we have been able to free up a manual inspector on the line for a more proactive assignment and run the inspection system without operators except for loading and unloading parts. The programmability of the vision system means that we can easily modify the program to compensate for design or process changes. Most important of all, we are confident that we have no fastener-related defects.”

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白光干涉测厚传感器在晶圆水膜厚度测量中的应用及操作步骤详解 2024 - 01 - 21 白光干涉测厚仪是一种非接触式测量设备,广泛应用于测量晶圆上液体薄膜的厚度。其原理基于分光干涉原理,通过利用反射光的光程差来测量被测物的厚度。白光干涉测厚仪工作原理是将宽谱光(白光)投射到待测薄膜表面上,并分析返回光的光谱。被测物的上下表面各形成一个反射,两个反射面之间的光程差会导致不同波长(颜色)的光互相增强或者抵消。通过详细分析返回光的光谱,可以得到被测物的厚度信息。白光干涉测厚仪在晶圆水膜厚度测量中具有以下优势:1. 测量范围广:能够测量几微米到1mm左右范围的厚度。2. 小光斑和高速测量:采用SLD(Superluminescent Diode)作为光源,具有小光斑和高速测量的特点,能够实现快速准确的测量。下面是使用白光干涉测厚仪测量晶圆上水膜厚度的详细步骤:1. 准备工作:确保待测晶圆样品表面清洁平整,无杂质和气泡。2. 参数设置:调整白光干测厚涉仪到合适的工作模式,并确定合适的测量参数和光学系统设置。根据具体要求选择光谱范围、采集速度等参数。3. 样品放置:将待测晶圆放置在白光干涉测厚仪的测量台上,并固定好位置,使其与光学系统保持稳定的接触。确保样品与测量台平行,并避免外界干扰因素。4. 启动测量:启动白光干涉测厚仪,开始测量水膜厚度。通过记录和分析返回光的光谱,可以得到晶圆上水膜的厚度信息。可以通过软件实时显示和记录数据。5. 连续监测:对于需要连续监测晶圆上水膜厚度变...
运用高精度激光位移传感器进行非接触测量工件倾斜度的应用与实践 2024 - 01 - 21 在制造业、航空航天、光学制造等行业中,准确地测量工件表面的平整度和倾斜度对于产品质量、设备性能和工程安全至关重要。为了适应这一需求,本文将详细介绍运用高精度激光位移传感器进行非接触测量工件倾斜度的具体操作步骤、应用领域以及如何通过实例演示其测量原理和效果。首先,测量设备的配置环节。需要准备3到5个高精度激光位移传感器,并配合用于数据分析处理的微机软件。在开始测量之前,传感器需要先行进行标定,以一个已知的标准平面作为参照进行校准,并让所有传感器的数值归零。这一步骤保证了测量过程的准确性,也为后续的数据分析奠定了基础。进行实测时,将待测工件放置在需要测量的表面上。根据物体表面的倾斜情况,每个传感器所显示的数值会出现差距。后续,我们可以通过微机软件读取这些二次数据,进行处理,从而精确地得出倾斜度和平整度等参数。值得注意的是,我们选择3-5个传感器进行测量的原因是,三个传感器可以保证确定一个平面的最少需求。在成本允许的情况下,增加到五个传感器进行多点测量,可以有效提高测量的准确性和稳定性。另外,在使用过程中,对传感器的同步性有很高的要求,尤其是采样速度。最好达到5k以上,以便实时调整待测表面,使得调整结果更精准,并且满足实时性的需求。当然,高精度激光位移传感器的应用领域非常广泛。在制造业,尤其是汽车制造业和机械加工行业中,通过测量工件表面的倾斜度和平整度,可以有效进行质量控制和生产过程优化...
高精度激光位移传感器在桥梁结构监控中的关键应用 2024 - 01 - 21 保障桥梁的安全运行与结构稳定性是城市交通安全的重要链接,而高精度激光位移传感器正是完成此项任务的关键装备之一。在桥梁结构监测中,它们凭借其非接触式高精度测量原理,对桥梁的位移、变形、振动等关键参数进行实时监测,为桥梁健康管理提供重要依据。首先,在桥梁的挠度和变形监测中,激光位移传感器扮演着非常重要的角色。通过将传感器安装在结构的关键位置,可以实时地观察并记录桥梁的挠度、沉降和扭曲等变化情况,这些数据能够提供对桥梁健康状况的即时反馈,帮助维修人员及时发现并对异常变形现象进行处理。其次,激光位移传感器还能作为振动监测工具,为桥梁的刚度和自然频率评估提供重要依据。该传感器通过测量桥梁的振频、振型和振幅等参数,可以生成宝贵的结构振动数据。在桥梁出现异常振动现象时,它们可以实时检测并发出预警信号,为桥梁维护人员提供对策指引,确保桥梁的安全使用。最后,激光位移传感器在桥梁结构损伤检测与诊断中也展现出重要的价值。通过对激光位移传感器采集到的振动信号进行分析,可以提取出桥梁的频率响应函数和模态特征等关键信息。进一步地,这些特征可以与桥梁设计时的标准特征进行对比,以检测桥梁是否存在损伤或疲劳等问题。这也使得激光位移传感器能够在桥梁微小的结构变化初始阶段就进行预警和诊断,从而帮助维护人员采取及时的维修或加固措施,有效延长桥梁的使用寿命。总体来看,高精度激光位移传感器在桥梁结构监控中起关键作用。无论是挠...
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